Adaptive Immunity to Fungi (Annual Review of Immunology Book 30)
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The review focuses on adaptive immune responses to the major medically important fungi and emphasizes how dendritic cells and subsets in various anatomic compartments respond to fungi, recognize their molecular patterns, and signal responses that nurture and shape the differentiation of T cell subsets and B cells. Also emphasized is how the latter deploy effector and regulatory mechanisms that eliminate these nasty invaders while also constraining collateral damage to vital tissue. The memory T cell pool functions as a dynamic repository of antigen-experienced T lymphocytes that accumulate over the lifetime of the individual.
Recent studies indicate that memory T lymphocytes contain distinct populations of central memory TCM and Read More. Figure 1: Phenotypic heterogeneity of human memory T cells.
Note that the percentages are only indicative of those found in a healthy human adult because there is considerable individual variability. Figure 2: A signal strength model for T cell differentiation and memory T cell generation. The duration and intensity of antigenic stimulation is indicated by the length and thickness of the solid arr Exhausted CD8 T Tex cells are a distinct cell lineage that arise during chronic infections and cancers in animal models and humans. Tex cells are characterized by progressive loss of effector functions, high and sustained inhibitory receptor expression, Figure 1: Model for T cell activation following antigen recognition.
Upon activa Figure 2: Three-signal model of development of T cell exhaustion. Persistent antigen signal 1 from virus or tumor drives hyperactivation of T cells that eventually leads to sustained coexpression of Figure 3: Inhibitory receptors can mediate their negative regulatory effects on T cell activation and effector function via multiple mechanisms, including conventional and nonconventional signaling mo Figure 4: Model of epigenetic and transcriptional control of gene expression in different T cell populations.
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The development of high-throughput transcriptional and epigenetic technologies has reveale Programmed death 1 PD-1 and its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, deliver inhibitory signals that regulate the balance between T cell activation, tolerance, and immunopathology. Immune responses to foreign and self-antigens require specific and balanced Recent data demonstrate that PD-L1 and B productively interact on T cells and can deliver bidirectional inhibitory signals. Figure 4: PD-L1 is upregulated on breast tumor, but not normal, cells Immunohistochemical staining brown of a breast ductal carcinoma showing high expression of PD-L1 on neoplastic tissue thick arr Depending on the initiating stimulus, cancer cell death can be immunogenic or nonimmunogenic.
Immunogenic cell death ICD involves changes in the composition of the cell surface as well as the release of soluble mediators, occurring in a defined temporal Figure 1: Operational definition of immunogenic cell death ICD. From an operational point of view, cancer cell death can be defined as immunogenic based on two major attributes.
First, the injection Figure 2: Properties of immunogenic cell death ICD. As a result of premortem endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy, cancer cells responding to ICD inducers expose CRT on the outer leaflet of th Figure 3: Comparison of the signaling pathways that underpin calreticulin CRT exposure in response to anthracyclines and photodynamic therapy PDT. Anthracycline-induced CRT exposure requires the c Figure 4: Strategies for restoring immunogenic cell death ICD. In experimental models of Coccidioides infection, the depletion of neutrophils does not result in increased lung or spleen fungal burden, 89 suggesting that neutrophils may be dispensable in that model.
Additionally, although the absence of functional TLR4 is not associated with any increase in lung burden, increased fungal dissemination to the spleen was reported.
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Though Type 2 immunity is largely considered dispensable at best and detrimental at worst in response to pulmonary fungal challenge, numerous groups have reported beneficial facets of Type 2 immunity to a variety of fungal pathogens. Additionally, whereas eosinophilia is associated with allergic airway inflammation following repeated exposure to Aspergillus conidia, 9 , 29 , 31 defects in eosinophil activity are associated with impaired ability to clear Aspergillus conidia following installation into the lungs.
Experimental models have identified candidate vaccination strategies against the endemic mycoses B.
Adaptive Immunity to Fungi | Annual Review of Immunology
Vaccination with glucan particles loaded with calnexin peptide was capable of eliciting protective immunity against both B. Various strategies, including recombinant proteins in glucan particles, engineered attenuated strains and alkaline extracts have shown promise in vaccination against experimental murine Cryptococcus infections. In contrast, CD4 T helper cells will have to engage arms of innate immunity, such as neutrophils, monocytes, or macrophages, 24 which may be absent or functionally impaired in immunosuppressed individuals, to protect against fungal infection. In the case of H.
In other cases, such as the Th2 responses that develop following repeated exposure to A. Furthermore in other contexts, including B. As mentioned above, the transfer of antifungal CD4 T cells shows great promise as a therapy for difficult to treat fungal infections in immunocompromised hosts. Experimental vaccines against B.
The authors thank members of the Klein Laboratory and Hull laboratory for helpful discussions. The authors have no competing financial, professional or personal interests that might have influenced the performance or presentation of the work described in the manuscript. Volume , Issue 2.
From an Organ Perspective
The full text of this article hosted at iucr. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. Review Article Free Access. Andrew J. Bruce S. Klein Corresponding Author E-mail address: bsklein wisc. Klein M. Search for more papers by this author.
Tools Request permission Export citation Add to favorites Track citation. Share Give access Share full text access. Share full text access. Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. Summary The mucosal surface of the respiratory tract encounters microbes, such as fungal particles, with every inhaled breath. Figure 1 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Acknowledgements The authors thank members of the Klein Laboratory and Hull laboratory for helpful discussions.
Pattern recognition receptor
Curr Opin Microbiol ; 40 : 8 — Crossref PubMed Google Scholar. Citing Literature. Volume , Issue 2 October Pages Figures References Related Information. Close Figure Viewer. Browse All Figures Return to Figure.